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This article is the author's final published version in International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 2, 2024, Article number 1113.

The published version is available at Copyright © 2024 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are a group of inborn errors of the metabolism caused by a deficiency in the lysosomal enzymes required to break down molecules called glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). These GAGs accumulate over time in various tissues and disrupt multiple biological systems, including catabolism of other substances, autophagy, and mitochondrial function. These pathological changes ultimately increase oxidative stress and activate innate immunity and inflammation. We have described the pathophysiology of MPS and activated inflammation in this paper, starting with accumulating the primary storage materials, GAGs. At the initial stage of GAG accumulation, affected tissues/cells are reversibly affected but progress irreversibly to: (1) disruption of substrate degradation with pathogenic changes in lysosomal function, (2) cellular dysfunction, secondary/tertiary accumulation (toxins such as GM2 or GM3 ganglioside, etc.), and inflammatory process, and (3) progressive tissue/organ damage and cell death (e.g., skeletal dysplasia, CNS impairment, etc.). For current and future treatment, several potential treatments for MPS that can penetrate the blood-brain barrier and bone have been proposed and/or are in clinical trials, including targeting peptides and molecular Trojan horses such as monoclonal antibodies attached to enzymes via receptor-mediated transport. Gene therapy trials with AAV, ex vivo LV, and Sleeping Beauty transposon system for MPS are proposed and/or underway as innovative therapeutic options. In addition, possible immunomodulatory reagents that can suppress MPS symptoms have been summarized in this review.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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