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This article is the author's final published version in Resuscitation Plus, Volume 14, June 2023, Article number 100374.

The published version is available at Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.



For paediatric patients and families, resuscitation can be an extremely stressful experience with significant medical and psychological consequences. Psychological sequelae may be reduced when healthcare teams apply patient- and family-centered care and trauma-informed care, yet there are few specific instructions for effective family-centered or trauma-informed behaviours that are observable and teachable. We aimed to develop a framework and tools to address this gap.


We reviewed relevant policy statements, guidelines, and research to define core domains of family-centered and trauma-informed care, and identified observable evidence-based practices in each domain. We refined this list of practices via review of provider/team behaviours in simulated paediatric resuscitation scenarios, then developed and piloted an observational checklist.


Six domains were identified: (1) Sharing information with patient and family; (2) Promoting family involvement in care and decisions; (3) Addressing family needs and distress; (4) Addressing child distress; (5) Promoting effective emotional support for child; (6) Practicing developmental and cultural competence. A 71-item observational checklist assessing these domains was feasible for use during video review of paediatric resuscitation.


This framework can guide future research and provide tools for training and implementation efforts to improve patient outcomes through patient- and family-centered and trauma-informed care.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.