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This article is the author’s final published version in Diagnostics, Volume 11, Issue 9, August 2021, Article number 1563.

The published version is available at Copyright © Amendum et al.


Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are present in proteoglycans, which play critical physiological roles in various tissues. They are known to be elevated in mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS), a group of rare inherited metabolic diseases in which the lysosomal enzyme required to break down one or more GAG is deficient. In a previous study, we found elevation of GAGs in a subset of patients without MPS. In the current study, we aim to investigate serum GAG levels in patients with conditions beyond MPS. In our investigated samples, the largest group of patients had a clinical diagnosis of viral or non-viral encephalopathy. Clinical diagnoses and conditions also included epilepsy, fatty acid metabolism disorders, respiratory and renal disorders, liver disorders, hypoglycemia, developmental disorders, hyperCKemia, myopathy, acidosis, and vomiting disorders. While there was no conclusive evidence across all ages for any disease, serum GAG levels were elevated in patients with encephalopathy and some patients with other conditions. These preliminary findings suggest that serum GAGs are potential biomarkers in MPS and other disorders. In conclusion, we propose that GAGs elevated in blood can be used as biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of various diseases in childhood; however, further designed experiments with larger sample sizes are required.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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