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This article is the author's final published version in Arthroplasty, Volume 6, Issue 1, 2024, Article number 26.

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Copyright © The Author(s) 2024


BACKGROUND: Artificial intelligence (AI) uses computer systems to simulate cognitive capacities to accomplish goals like problem-solving and decision-making. Machine learning (ML), a branch of AI, makes algorithms find connections between preset variables, thereby producing prediction models. ML can aid shoulder surgeons in determining which patients may be susceptible to worse outcomes and complications following shoulder arthroplasty (SA) and align patient expectations following SA. However, limited literature is available on ML utilization in total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) and reverse TSA.

METHODS: A systematic literature review in accordance with PRISMA guidelines was performed to identify primary research articles evaluating ML's ability to predict SA outcomes. With duplicates removed, the initial query yielded 327 articles, and after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 12 articles that had at least 1 month follow-up time were included.

RESULTS: ML can predict 30-day postoperative complications with a 90% accuracy, postoperative range of motion with a higher-than-85% accuracy, and clinical improvement in patient-reported outcome measures above minimal clinically important differences with a 93%-99% accuracy. ML can predict length of stay, operative time, discharge disposition, and hospitalization costs.

CONCLUSION: ML can accurately predict outcomes and complications following SA and healthcare utilization. Outcomes are highly dependent on the type of algorithms used, data input, and features selected for the model.


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