Document Type


Publication Date



This article is the author's final published version in Brain and Spine, Volume 4, January 2024, Article number 102777.

The published version is available at

Copyright © 2024 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of EUROSPINE, the Spine Society of Europe, EANS, the European Association of Neurosurgical Societies


INTRODUCTION: Given the increasing incidence of traumatic thoracolumbar injuries in recent years, studies have sought to investigate potential risk factors for outcomes in these patients.

RESEARCH QUESTION: The aim of this study was to investigate trends and risk factors for in-hospital mortality after fusion for traumatic thoracolumbar injury.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients undergoing thoracolumbar fusion after traumatic injury were queried from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2012 to 2017. Analysis was performed to identify risk factors for inpatient mortality after surgery.

RESULTS: Patients in 2017 were on average older (51.0 vs. 48.5, P = 0.004), had more admitting diagnoses (15.5 vs. 10.7, p < 0.001), were less likely to be White (75.8% vs. 81.2%, p = 0.006), were from a ZIP code with a higher median income quartile (Quartile 1: 31.4% vs. 28.6%, p = 0.011), and were more likely to have Medicare as a primary payer (22.9% vs. 30.1%, p < 0.001). Bivariate analysis of demographics and surgical characteristics demonstrated that patients in the in-hospital mortality group (n = 90) were older (70.2 vs. 49.6, p < 0.001), more likely to be male (74.4% vs. 62.8%, p = 0.031), had a great number of admitted diagnoses (21.3 vs. 12.7, p < 0.001), and were more likely to be insured by Medicare (70.0% vs. 27.0%, p < 0.001). Multivariate regression analysis found age (OR 1.06, p < 0.001) and Black race (OR 3.71, p = 0.007) were independently associated with in-hospital mortality.

CONCLUSION: Our study of nationwide, traumatic thoracolumbar fusion procedures from 2012 to 2017 in the NIS database found older, black patients were at increased risk for in-hospital mortality after surgery.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

PubMed ID