Ankle arthrodesis remains the gold standard of surgical treatment for advanced ankle joint arthritis. Failure can occur as a result of infection, nonunion or malunion, resulting in pain and poor function. This paper offers a systematic approach to preventing, and managing these problems should they occur. Revision arthrodesis performed with a detailed understanding of the appropriate alignment and mechanics of the ankle joint, combined with meticulous attention to understanding and reversing the cause of the failure can result in successful salvage and restoration of function.
Raikin, Steven M. and Rampuri, Venkat, "An approach to the failed ankle arthrodesis" (2008). Department of Orthopaedic Surgery Faculty Papers. Paper 13.