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This article has been peer reviewed. It is the author’s final published version in Bioscience Reports, Volume 39, Issue 1, January 2019, Article number BSR20180270.

The published version is available at Copyright © Sieron et al.


Inactive mammalian tolloid-like 1 (tll1) and mutations detected in tolloid-like 1 (TLL1) have been linked to the lack of the heart septa formation in mice and to a similar human inborn condition called atrial-septal defect 6 (ASD6; OMIM 613087, formerly ASD II). Previously, we reported four point mutations in TLL1 found in approximately 20% of ASD6 patients. Three mutations in the coding sequence were M182L, V238A, and I629V. In this work, we present the effects of these mutations on TLL1 function. Three recombinant cDNA constructs carrying the mutations and one wild-type construct were prepared and then expressed in HT-1080 cells. Corresponding recombinant proteins were analyzed for their metalloendopeptidase activity using a native substrate, chordin. The results of these assays demonstrated that in comparison with the native TLL1, mutants cleaved chordin and procollagen I at significantly lower rates. CD analyses revealed significant structural differences between the higher order structure of wild-type and mutant variants. Moreover, biosensor-based assays of binding interactions between TLL1 variants and chordin demonstrated a significant decrease in the binding affinities of the mutated variants. The results from this work indicate that mutations detected in TLL1 of ASD6 patients altered its metalloendopeptidase activity, structure, and substrate-binding properties, thereby suggesting a possible pathomechanism of ASD6. © 2018 The Author(s).

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