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This article has been peer reviewed. It is the author’s final published version in Vaccines, Volume 6, Issue 3, September 2018, Article number 54.

The published version is available at Copyright © Thadi et al.


Peritoneal metastasis (PM) is an advanced stage malignancy largely refractory to modern therapy. Intraperitoneal (IP) immunotherapy offers a novel approach for the control of regional disease of the peritoneal cavity by breaking immune tolerance. These strategies include heightening T-cell response and vaccine induction of anti-cancer memory against tumor-associated antigens. Early investigations with chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T cells), vaccine-based therapies, dendritic cells (DCs) in combination with pro-inflammatory cytokines and natural killer cells (NKs), adoptive cell transfer, and immune checkpoint inhibitors represent significant advances in the treatment of PM. IP delivery of CAR-T cells has shown demonstrable suppression of tumors expressing carcinoembryonic antigen. This response was enhanced when IP injected CAR-T cells were combined with anti-PD-L1 or anti-Gr1. Similarly, CAR-T cells against folate receptor α expressing tumors improved T-cell tumor localization and survival when combined with CD137 co-stimulatory signaling. Moreover, IP immunotherapy with catumaxomab, a trifunctional antibody approved in Europe, targets epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and has shown considerable promise with control of malignant ascites. Herein, we discuss immunologic approaches under investigation for treatment of PM.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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