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This article is the author's final published version in European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology: X, Volume 19, 2023, Article number 100227.

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Incarcerated gravid uterus (IGU) is a serious complication of pregnancy that leads to adverse obstetric outcomes. The aim of this review was to describe this entity in detail. We also aimed to understand if pregnancies with predisposing risk factors that increase the risk of developing IGU had a difference in their clinical manifestations, treatment, and obstetric outcomes. The PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus databases and were searched from inception to July 2023. Case reports and series that provided all the details of the pregnancy and IGU outcome were included. Study quality and risk of bias were assessed using a tool that is an adaptation from criteria listed by Pierson, Bradford Hills and Newcastle Ottawa scale modification. Patients with the condition of interest included in this review were grouped into those with documented, identified risk factors and no risk factors. The two groups were compared to understand the difference in obstetric outcome and presentation of IGU. Data were analyzed and summarized descriptively, categorical variables were assessed by chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test, and continuous variables by the Wilcoxon Mann Whitney test. Of 236 articles found, 62 articles with 80 cases were included in the final analysis. The median age was 32 [27-35] years. The median gestational age of diagnosis was 17 [14-26] weeks. The most common risk factor was fibroids (N = 22, 27.5 %). Most common presentation was urinary complaints and lower abdomen pain (N = 47, 58.6 %). Twenty-seven patients (33.6 %) needed more than one visit for the diagnosis to be made. Conservative management was the first step to treat IGU in most patients. Most common complication was fetal malpresentation (N = 13, 40.6 %). Patients with or without risk factors developing IGU had no statistical difference in- parity, median gestational age of diagnosis, delay in diagnosis, increased chance of misdiagnosis, management of IGU or in obstetric outcome (all p > 0.05). It is important to recognize this entity early to prevent obstetric complications especially when patients report urinary retention and abdomen pain. The presence of risk factors does not change the management course or obstetric outcome in patients with IGU. Hence it is reasonable to start with conservative management of IGU regardless of presence of risk factors or the gestational age of diagnosis, in clinical practice.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

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