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This article is the author's final published version in F and S Reports, Volume 4, Issue 1, March 2023, Pages 36 - 42.

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Copyright © 2022 The Author(s)

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OBJECTIVE: To identify factors influencing sperm donor willingness to participate in direct-to-consumer genetic testing, comfort with sharing genetically identifiable data in commercial genetic testing databases, and likelihood to donate sperm again.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional online anonymous survey.

SETTING: Multicenter, 2 large American sperm banks from July 1, 2020 to July10, 2021.

PATIENTS: Sperm donors from 1980 to 2020.


MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Associations between donor demographic characteristics, donation history, and attitudes toward direct-to-consumer genetic testing.

RESULTS: A total of 396 donors completed the survey. Most donations (61.5%) occurred from 2010 to 2020, and 34.3% were nonidentified donations. Nonidentified donors were less comfortable with their genetic data being shared than open-identity donors (25.4% vs. 43.8%) and were less likely than open-identity donors to donate sperm again (43.3% vs. 72.1%). Donors who donated after the inception of direct-to-consumer genetic testing in 2007 were less likely to participate in commercial genetic testing than those who donated before 2007 (25.8% vs. 37.1%). Most donors (87.4%) have disclosed their donation(s) to current partners, but fewer have disclosed them to their families (56.6%) or children (30.5%). Of the donors who had been contacted by donor-conceived persons, 79.5% were identified via direct-to-consumer genetic testing. Overall, 61.1% of donors would donate again regardless of direct-to-consumer genetic testing.

CONCLUSIONS: Direct-to-consumer genetic testing is playing a dynamic role in sperm donor identification, but donors seem willing to donate again. Implication counseling regarding future linkage and contact from donor-conceived persons needs to be standardized for potential donors before donation.

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