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This article is the author's final published version in Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 12, Issue 22, November 2023, Article number 6958.

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Copyright © 2023 by the authors.


The optimal treatment for intractable epistaxis is still controversial. Various studies have demonstrated high success rates and low complication rates for endovascular embolization. Herein, the authors report an institutional experience and meta-analysis in terms of efficacy and safety of endovascular embolization of intractable epistaxis. This was a retrospective observational study of 35 patients with epistaxis who underwent 40 embolization procedures between 2010 and 2023. The primary outcome was immediate success defined by immediate cessation of epistaxis at the end of the procedure. Immediate success was achieved in most of the procedures (39, 97.5%). During follow-up, three (7.5%) patients experienced a rebleed. Forty-one studies from 3595 articles were identified for inclusion in the meta-analysis and comprised 1632 patients. The mean pooled age was 57.5 years (95% CI: 57.2-57.8) and most patients were males (mean: 70.4, 95% CI: 69.8-71.0). Immediate success was achieved at a pooled mean of 90.9% (95% CI: 90.4-91.4) and rebleeding was observed at a pooled mean of 17% (95% CI: 16.5-17.5). In conclusion, endovascular embolization proved to be both safe and effective in treating intractable epistaxis carrying a low risk of post-operative stroke.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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