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This article is the author's final published version in the Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 12, Issue 11, 2023, Article number 3755.

The published version is available at Copyright © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Stroke is an emergency in which delays in treatment can lead to significant loss of neurological function and be fatal. Technologies that increase the speed and accuracy of stroke diagnosis or assist in post-stroke rehabilitation can improve patient outcomes. No resource exists that comprehensively assesses artificial intelligence/machine learning (AI/ML)-enabled technologies indicated for the management of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. We queried a United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) database, along with PubMed and private company websites, to identify the recent literature assessing the clinical performance of FDA-approved AI/ML-enabled technologies. The FDA has approved 22 AI/ML-enabled technologies that triage brain imaging for more immediate diagnosis or promote post-stroke neurological/functional recovery. Technologies that assist with diagnosis predominantly use convolutional neural networks to identify abnormal brain images (e.g., CT perfusion). These technologies perform comparably to neuroradiologists, improve clinical workflows (e.g., time from scan acquisition to reading), and improve patient outcomes (e.g., days spent in the neurological ICU). Two devices are indicated for post-stroke rehabilitation by leveraging neuromodulation techniques. Multiple FDA-approved technologies exist that can help clinicians better diagnose and manage stroke. This review summarizes the most up-to-date literature regarding the functionality, performance, and utility of these technologies so clinicians can make informed decisions when using them in practice.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.