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This article is the author’s final published version in Frontiers in Oncology, Volume 11, February 2021, Article number 615704.

The published version is available at Copyright © Piper et al.


Glioblastoma is the most common and lethal primary brain malignancy. Despite major investments in research into glioblastoma biology and drug development, treatment remains limited and survival has not substantially improved beyond 1–2 years. Cancer stem cells (CSC) or glioma stem cells (GSC) refer to a population of tumor originating cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation. While controversial and challenging to study, evidence suggests that GCSs may result in glioblastoma tumor recurrence and resistance to treatment. Multiple treatment strategies have been suggested at targeting GCSs, including immunotherapy, posttranscriptional regulation, modulation of the tumor microenvironment, and epigenetic modulation. In this review, we discuss recent advances in glioblastoma treatment specifically focused on targeting of GCSs as well as their potential integration into current clinical pathways and trials.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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