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This article is the author's final published version in Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, Volume 17, 2023, Article number 1265100.

The published version is available at Copyright © 2024 Mohammadi-Pilehdarboni, Shenagari, Joukar, Naziri and Mansour-Ghanaei.


Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a complex, multifactorial disorder, influenced by a multitude of variables ranging from genetic factors, age, and head injuries to vascular diseases, infections, and various other environmental and demographic determinants. Among the environmental factors, the role of the microbiome in the genesis of neurodegenerative disorders (NDs) is gaining increased recognition. This paradigm shift is substantiated by an extensive body of scientific literature, which underscores the significant contributions of microorganisms, encompassing viruses and gut-derived bacteria, to the pathogenesis of AD. The mechanism by which microbial infection exerts its influence on AD hinges primarily on inflammation. Neuroinflammation, activated in response to microbial infections, acts as a defense mechanism for the brain but can inadvertently lead to unexpected neuropathological perturbations, ultimately contributing to NDs. Given the ongoing uncertainty surrounding the genetic factors underpinning ND, comprehensive investigations into environmental factors, particularly the microbiome and viral agents, are imperative. Recent advances in neuroscientific research have unveiled the pivotal role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in orchestrating various pathways integral to neurodegenerative pathologies. While the upstream regulators governing the pathological manifestations of microorganisms remain elusive, an in-depth exploration of the nuanced role of ncRNAs holds promise for the development of prospective therapeutic interventions. This review aims to elucidate the pivotal role of ncRNAs as master modulators in the realm of neurodegenerative conditions, with a specific focus on Alzheimer’s disease.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.