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This article is the author’s final published version in Epilepsia, Volume 63, Issue S1, September 2022, Pages S55 - S68.

The published version is available at Copyright © Wheless et al.


Clinical studies of rescue medications for seizure clusters are limited and are designed to satisfy regulatory requirements, which may not fully consider the needs of the diverse patient population that experiences seizure clusters or utilize rescue medication. The purpose of this narrative review is to examine the factors that contribute to, or may influence the quality of, seizure cluster research with a goal of improving clinical practice. We address five areas of unmet needs and provide advice for how they could enhance future trials of seizure cluster treatments. The topics addressed in this article are: (1) unaddressed end points to pursue in future studies, (2) roles for devices to enhance rescue medication clinical development programs, (3) tools to study seizure cluster prediction and prevention, (4) the value of other designs for seizure cluster studies, and (5) unique challenges of future trial paradigms for seizure clusters. By focusing on novel end points and technologies with value to patients, caregivers, and clinicians, data obtained from future studies can benefit the diverse patient population that experiences seizure clusters, providing more effective, appropriate care as well as alleviating demands on health care resources.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License



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