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This article is the author’s final published version in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Volume 119, Issue 14, April 2022, Pages e2111804119.

The published version is available at Copyright © Hwang et al.


SignificanceMultiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), are autoimmune diseases characterized by accumulation of myeloid cells in the central nervous system (CNS). Both harmful and beneficial myeloid cells are present in EAE/MS, and a goal of MS therapy is to preferentially remove harmful myeloid cells. The receptor for CSF-1 (CSF-1R) is found on myeloid cells and is important for their survival. CSF-1R can bind two ligands, CSF-1 and IL-34, but it is not known whether their functions in EAE/MS differ. We found that blocking CSF-1 depleted only harmful myeloid cells in the CNS and suppressed EAE, whereas blocking IL-34 had no effect. Thus, we propose that blocking CSF-1 could be a therapy for MS.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

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