Background: Electrode contact locations are important when planning tailored brain surgeries to identify pathological tissue targeted for resection and conversely avoid eloquent tissue. Current methods employ trained experts to use neuroimaging scans that are manually co-registered and localize contacts within ~2 mm. Yet, the state of the art is limited by either the expertise needed for each type of intracranial electrode or the inter-modality co-registration which increases error, reducing accuracy. Patients often have a variety of strips, grids and depths implanted; therefore, it is cumbersome and time-consuming to apply separate localization methods for each type of electrode, requiring expertise across different approaches.
New method: To overcome these limitations, a computational method was developed by separately registering an implant magnetic resonance image (MRI) and implant computed tomography image (CT) to the pre-implant MRI, then calculating an iterative closest point transformation using the contact locations extracted from the signal voids as ground truth.
Results: The implant MRI is robustly co-registered to the pre-implant MRI with a boundary-based registration algorithm. By extracting and utilizing 'signal voids' (the metal induced artifacts from the implant MRI) as electrode fiducials, the novel method is an all-in-one approach for all types of intracranial electrodes while eliminating inter-modality co-registration errors.
Comparison with existing methods: The distance between each electrode centroid and the brain's surface was measured, for the proposed method as well as the state of the art method using two available software packages, SPM 12 and FSL 4.1. The method presented here achieves the smallest distances to the brain's surface for all strip and grid type electrodes, i.e. contacts designed to rest directly on the brain surface
Conclusion: We use one of the largest reported sample sizes in localization studies to validate this novel method for localizing different kinds of intracranial electrodes including grids, strips and depth electrodes.
Hinds, Walter A.; Misra, Amrit; Sperling, Michael R.; Sharan, Ashwini; Tracy, Joseph I.; and Moxon, Karen A., "Enhanced co-registration methods to improve intracranial electrode contact localization." (2018). Department of Neurology Faculty Papers. Paper 163.
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