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This article has been peer reviewed. It is the author’s final published version in Scientific Reports

Volume 7, January 2017, Article number 41227.

The published version is available at DOI: 10.1038/srep41227. Copyright © Li et al.


FSD-C10, a Fasudil derivative, was shown to reduce severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), through the modulation of the immune response and induction of neuroprotective molecules in the central nervous system (CNS). However, whether FSD-C10 can promote neuroregeneration remains unknown. In this study, we further analyzed the effect of FSD-C10 on neuroprotection and remyelination. FSD-C10-treated mice showed a longer, thicker and more intense MAP2 and synaptophysin positive signal in the CNS, with significantly fewer CD4(+) T cells, macrophages and microglia. Importantly, the CNS of FSD-C10-treated mice showed a shift of activated macrophages/microglia from the type 1 to type 2 status, elevated numbers of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) and oligodendrocytes, and increased levels of neurotrophic factors NT-3, GDNF and BDNF. FSD-C10-treated microglia significantly inhibited Th1/Th17 cell differentiation and increased the number of IL-10(+) CD4(+) T cells, and the conditioned medium from FSD-C10-treated microglia promoted OPC survival and oligodendrocyte maturation. Addition of FSD-C10 directly promoted remyelination in a chemical-induced demyelination model on organotypic slice culture, in a BDNF-dependent manner. Together, these findings demonstrate that FSD-C10 promotes neural repair through mechanisms that involved both immunomodulation and induction of neurotrophic factors.

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