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The role of insurance status is a neglected dimension of access to pediatric mental health care for mood and anxiety disorders in the United States. With the declaration of a national emergency for children’s mental health in 2021, the relationship between insurance status and access to care for pediatric patients experiencing mood or anxiety disorders must be better understood. This rapid review identified and examined studies from PubMed and PsycINFO focused on this relationship. Of 753 studies, five met the inclusion criteria, which assessed various outcomes by insurance status, including: mental healthcare appointment wait times, mental healthcare appointment availability, emergency department rates of admission or transfer, and depression screening rates. These studies utilized mystery shopper, cross-sectional, and retrospective cohort study designs. They demonstrated mixed findings regarding wait times and appointment availability, with greater support leaning toward no difference based on insurance status. They also showed no difference in admission vs. transfer rates between patients with public and private insurance but a difference with uninsured patients. Lastly, they determined that patients with private insurance were less likely to be screened for depression than those with public insurance. This review uncovers the need for more comprehensive research into the association between access to mental healthcare for mood and anxiety disorders and insurance status. Institutional leaders could begin taking tangible steps toward reducing the public mental health crisis with a fuller understanding of this relationship.