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This article is the author's final published version in Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, Volume 251, September 2022, Article number 111511.

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This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license ( nd/4.0/).


The gastrointestinal (GI) nematode Strongyloides stercoralis (S.s.) causes human strongyloidiasis, a potentially life-threatening disease that currently affects over 600 million people globally. The uniquely pernicious aspect of S.s. infection, as compared to all other GI nematodes, is its autoinfective larval stage (L3a) that maintains a low-grade chronic infection, allowing undetectable persistence for decades. Infected individuals who are administered glucocorticoid therapy can develop a rapid and often lethal hyperinfection syndrome within days. Hyperinfection patients often present with dramatic increases in first- and second-stage larvae and L3a in their GI tract, with L3a widely disseminating throughout host organs leading to sepsis. How glucocorticoid administration drives hyperinfection remains a critical unanswered question; specifically, it is unknown whether these steroids promote hyperinfection through eliminating essential host protective mechanisms and/or through dysregulating parasite development. This current deficiency in understanding is largely due to the previous absence of a genetically defined mouse model that would support all S.s. life-cycle stages and the lack of successful approaches for S.s. genetic manipulation. However, there are currently new possibilities through the recent demonstration that immunodeficient NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ (NSG) mice support sub-clinical infections that can be transformed to lethal hyperinfection syndrome following glucocorticoid administration. This is coupled with advances in transcriptomics, transgenesis, and gene inactivation strategies that now allow rigorous scientific inquiry into S.s. biology. We propose that combining in vivo manipulation of host immunity and deep immunoprofiling strategies with the latest advances in S.s. transcriptomics, piggyBac transposon-mediated transgene insertion, and CRISPR/Cas-9-mediated gene inactivation will facilitate new insights into the mechanisms that could be targeted to block lethality in humans with S.s. hyperinfection.

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