Factors Associated with Breast Cancer Screening Decision Stage among Women in Tehran, Iran.

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This article is the final published version in International Journal of Preventive Medicine Volume 5, Issue 2, February 2014, Pages 196-202.

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BACKGROUND: Early detection through screening is the best method to reduce death due to breast cancer. It has been shown, having knowledge and generating positive attitudes, influences the decision of women to participate in the screening programs. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with breast cancer screening (BCS) and with an intention to have screening among women in Tehran, Iran.

METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out from January to July 2011, among women who had attended to primary health-care centers in West Tehran using multi-stage sampling method. We invited 1,240 women sequentially to complete a self-administered survey questionnaire at the beginning of their visit; and 1,012 (82%) completed the survey. The questionnaire included, items drawn from the Preventive Health Model that assess socio-demographic background and perceptions about BCS. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with screening and intention to do screening in the future.

RESULTS: The mean age of subjects was 38.2 years. Women who perceived more screening efficacy (odd ratio [OR] =1.63; confidence interval [CI] 95%: 1.12-2.37) and fewer performance barriers (OR = 0.82; CI 95%: 0.68-0.97) were more likely to perform clinical breast exam in the future. The women who reported higher clinical breast exam self-efficacy (OR = 1.82; CI 95%: 1.39-2.37), mammography self-efficacy (OR = 1.31; CI 95%: 1.04-1.65), screening efficacy (OR = 1.53; CI 95%: 1.18-1.97), and family influence (OR = 1.27; CI 95%: 1.05-1.54), and those who reported fewer screening performance barriers (OR = 0.56; CI 95%: 0.48-0.67) were more likely to decide for carried out mammography in the future. Most respondents indicated that they intended to do clinical breast exam and mammography in the future (75.8% and 72.1% respectively). About 65% of women reported they would do both.

CONCLUSIONS: We found that women's intention to do BCS was very high and a comprehensive national program is needed to guide their intention. Among different demographic factors, the impact of education level on doing BCS was significant.

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