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This article is the author’s final published version in PloS one, Volume 18, Issue 1, January 2023, Pages e0280348.

The published version is available at Copyright © Tanaka et al.


Background: The impact of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) on the prognosis of biliary tract cancer (BTC) is not completely understood. Therefore, in our study, we investigated the effects of the various immune cells infiltration in tumor microenvironment (TME).

Methods: A total of 130 patients with BTC who underwent surgical treatment at our institution were enrolled in this study. We retrospectively evaluated TILs and TAMs with immunohistochemical staining.

Results: With CD8-high, CD4-high, FOXP3-high, and CD68-low in TME as one factor, we calculated Immunoscore according to the number of factors. The high Immunoscore group showed significantly superior overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) than the low Immunoscore group (median OS, 60.8 vs. 26.4 months, p = 0.001; median RFS not reached vs. 17.2 months, p < 0.001). Also, high Immunoscore was an independent good prognostic factor for OS and RFS (hazards ratio 2.05 and 2.41 and p = 0.01 and p = 0.001, respectively).

Conclusions: High Immunoscore group had significantly superior OS and RFS and was an independent good prognostic factor for OS and RFS.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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