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This article is the author's final published version in Frontiers in Oncology, Volume 12, July 2022, Article number 840451.

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Copyright © 2022 Gung, McGuire, George, Abdulkareem, Belden, Porcu, Martinez-Outschoorn, Binder, Chervenova and Alpdogan This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.


We retrospectively analyzed SARS-CoV-2 vaccination antibody responses in a cohort of 273 patients with lymphoproliferative disorders or plasma cell dyscrasias who were seen at a single tertiary cancer center. Semi-quantitative anti-spike protein serologic testing was performed with enzyme immunoassay method. We found that the antibody response rate to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was 74.7% in our patient cohort with no difference based on gender, age or race. The highest response rate was found in patients with Multiple Myeloma (MM) (95.5%). The response rates found in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL), Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL), and Low-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (LG-NHL) were 73.2%, 61.5% and 53% respectively. We also evaluated the effects of receiving active chemo-immunotherapy on SARS-CoV-2 vaccination antibody response. We found that the patients on treatment had lower response than the patients off treatment (62.1% versus 84.4% p<0.001). Thirty-four of 58 LG-NHL patients were receiving anti-lymphoma treatment with a lower SARS-CoV-2 vaccination response as compared to the patients who were not on treatment (29.4% v 87.5% p<0.001). We observed a similar pattern in CLL patients receiving treatment (48.1 v 76.0 p:0.049). We found that only disease type and treatment status (on-treatment vs. off- treatment), but not gender, age or race were significant predictors of non-response in the multivariable logistic regression model. The interaction between disease type and treatment status was not statistically significant by multivariate analysis. In conclusion, receiving anti-cancer treatment was found to play a significant role in decreasing the response to COVID-19 vaccination.

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