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This article is the author’s final published version in Cancers, Volume 13, Issue 22, November 2021, Article number 5749.

The published version is available at Copyright © Terai et al.


Uveal melanoma is the most common primary ocular malignancy in adults, characterized by gene mutations in G protein subunit alpha q (GNAQ) and G protein subunit alpha 11 (GNA11). Although they are considered to be driver mutations, their role in MUM remains elusive. We investigated key somatic mutations of MUM and their impact on patients’ survival after development of systemic metastasis (Met-to-Death). Metastatic lesions from 87 MUM patients were analyzed by next generation sequencing (NGS). GNA11 (41/87) and GNAQ (39/87) mutations were most predominantly seen in MUM. Most GNA11 mutations were Q209L (36/41), whereas GNAQ mutations comprised Q209L (14/39) and Q209P (21/39). Epigenetic pathway mutations BAP1 (42/66), SF3B1 (11/66), FBXW7 (2/87), PBRM1 (1/66), and SETD2 (1/66) were found. No specimen had the EIF1AX mutation. Interestingly, Met-to-Death was longer in patients with GNAQ Q209P compared to GNAQ/GNA11 Q209L mutations, suggesting the difference in mutation type in GNAQ/GNA11 might determine the prognosis of MUM. Structural alterations of the GNAQ/GNA11 protein and their impact on survival of MUM patients should be further investigated.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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