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This article is the author's final published version in BMC Pediatrics, Volume 24, Issue 1, 2024, Article number 224.

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Copyright © 2024. This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the US; foreign copyright protection may apply.


Neonatal compartment syndrome, although rare, has a classic presentation with sentinel skin findings and development of swelling, erythema, and tenderness of the affected extremity. Neonatal compartment syndrome requires prompt surgical intervention to preserve the affected limb and ensure its normal growth and development. Our patient was born at term via vaginal delivery complicated by a compound presentation involving the left upper extremity. No physical exam abnormalities were noted at birth, but she developed signs of neonatal compartment syndrome by 15 h of life. She was surgically treated at 22 h of life and recovered well. At one year of age, she has normal growth and function of the affected extremity. Our case adds to the growing literature associating neonatal compartment syndrome with a compound fetal presentation.

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