Document Type


Publication Date



This article is the author's final published version in Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 13, Issue 6, March 2024, Article number 1680.

The published version is available at

Copyright © 2024 by the authors


Background: There are many nonpharmacological pain management services available to hospitalized youth; however, not all youth are offered these services. Lack of knowledge about resources, difficulty with the referral process, and lack of understanding about nonpharmacological pain management services and when to refer patients are among the main reasons for lack of utilization. Quality improvement (QI) initiatives have grown within hospital settings and can serve to create change in fast-paced environments. Methods: The current QI project aimed to pilot an educational program to increase the use of nonpharmacological pain management interventions. Staff located on one floor of a pediatric hospital on the East Coast were selected because of the wide range of patient presentations and likelihood that these youth may present with pain during the hospitalization. Following several incremental changes and multiple PDSA cycles, utilization of nonpharmacological pain management services was assessed. Results: Education only did not result in increases in nonpharmacological pain management services ordered. A best practice alert for nursing staff, implemented within the electronic medical record, led to a 50% increase in services ordered. Conclusions: These results suggest that to improve use of nonpharmacological pain management strategies, hospital systems may need to consider more than education.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

PubMed ID