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This article is the author's final published version in Livers, Volume 3, Issue 4, December 2023, Pages 637 - 656.

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Copyright © 2023 by the authors


This paper provides a comprehensive review of the current understanding of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), focusing on key factors influencing its pathogenesis and emerging therapeutic strategies. This review highlights the growing prevalence of NAFLD and NASH, emphasizing their multifactorial nature. The manuscript identifies various contributors to NAFLD development, including genetic, dietary, and environmental factors, while examining the intricate interplay between these factors and their impact on hepatic lipid metabolism, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Genetic predisposition, dietary fat intake, and excessive fructose consumption are discussed as significant contributors to NAFLD progression. The article emphasizes the lack of a single therapeutic approach and underscores the need for combination strategies. Lifestyle interventions, particularly weight loss through diet and exercise, remain crucial, while pharmacological options like GLP-1 receptor agonists, obeticholic acid, lanifibranor, and resmetirom show promise but require further validation. Bariatric surgery and emerging endoscopic procedures offer potential in eligible patients. In sum, this article underscores the complexity of NAFLD and NASH, addresses key factors influencing pathogenesis, and discusses emerging therapies advocating for a multifaceted approach to this increasingly prevalent and clinically relevant condition.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.