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This article is the author's final published version in Cancers, Volume 15, Issue 21, November 2023, Article number 5129.

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Copyright © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Chemotherapy remains a primary treatment for younger AML patients, though many relapse. Data from our group have shown that highly phosphorylated S6 in blasts may predict response to sirolimus given with chemotherapy. We report the results of a phase I study of this combination in newly diagnosed AML and the pharmacodynamic analysis of pS6 before and after treatment. Subjects received sirolimus (12 mg on day 1, 4 mg daily, days 2-10), then idarubicin and cytarabine (days 4-10). Response was assessed at hematologic recovery or by day 42 using a modified IWG criteria. Fifty-five patients received sirolimus. Toxicity was similar to published 7 + 3 data, and 53% had high-, 27% intermediate-, and 20% favorable-risk disease. Forty-four percent of the high-risk patients entered into CR/CRp. Seventy-nine percent of the intermediate-risk subjects had a CR/CRp. All favorable-risk patients had a CR by day 42; 9/11 remained alive and in remission with a median follow-up of 660 days. Additionally, 41/55 patients had adequate samples for pharmacodynamic analysis. All patients demonstrated activation of S6 prior to therapy, in contrast to 67% seen in previous studies of relapsed AML. mTORC1 inhibition was observed in 66% of patients without enrichment among patients who achieved remission. We conclude that sirolimus and 7 + 3 is a well-tolerated and safe regimen. mTORC1 appears to be activated in almost all patients at diagnosis of AML. Inhibition of mTORC1 did not differ based on response, suggesting that AML cells may have redundant signaling pathways that regulate chemosensitivity in the presence of mTORC1 inhibition.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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