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This article is the author's final published version in International Journal of Molecular Science, Volume 24, Issue 13, 2023, Article number 10968.

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Copyright © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// 4.0/).


Essential trace elements are required in extremely small amounts and obtained through diet. This research focuses on detecting major trace elements in different biofluids of sixty women undergoing ICSI with PGT-A and SET/FET at IVI-RMA, New Jersey, and assessing their impact on their IVF outcomes. Urine, plasma, and follicular fluid samples were collected on the vaginal oocyte retrieval day to measure the concentrations of eight essential trace elements (copper, zinc, molybdenum, lithium, selenium, manganese, chromium, and iron) using ICP-MS. After analysis, ovarian response and preimplantation outcomes had significant positive associations with both copper alone and the copper/zinc ratio in the follicular fluid and plasma, in addition to plasma manganese. Alternatively, elevated follicular fluid lithium concentrations were significantly associated with poor preimplantation outcomes while the urinary molybdenum concentration was significantly associated with a lower probability of implantation, clinical pregnancy, and live birth. Urinary lithium and chromium concentrations were significantly associated with a lower probability of achieving a live birth. Our results suggest that the essential trace elements present in follicular fluid, plasma, and urine of women are directly associated with their reproductive outcomes, with copper and manganese exerting positive effects and lithium and molybdenum exerting negative effects.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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