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This article is the author's final published version in The Lancet, Volume 402, Issue 10396, July 2023, Pages 118 - 128.

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Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.


BACKGROUND: Etripamil is a fast-acting, intranasally administered calcium-channel blocker in development for on-demand therapy outside a health-care setting for paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of etripamil 70 mg nasal spray using a symptom-prompted, repeat-dose regimen for acute conversion of atrioventricular-nodal-dependent paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia to sinus rhythm within 30 min.

METHODS: RAPID was a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, event-driven trial, conducted at 160 sites in North America and Europe as part 2 of the NODE-301 study. Eligible patients were aged at least 18 years and had a history of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia with sustained, symptomatic episodes (≥20 min) as documented by electrocardiogram. Patients were administered two test doses of intranasal etripamil (each 70 mg, 10 min apart) during sinus rhythm; those who tolerated the test doses were randomly assigned (1:1) using an interactive response technology system to receive either etripamil or placebo. Prompted by symptoms of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, patients self-administered a first dose of intranasal 70 mg etripamil or placebo and, if symptoms persisted beyond 10 min, a repeat dose. Continuously recorded electrocardiographic data were adjudicated, by individuals masked to patient assignment, for the primary endpoint of time to conversion of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia to sinus rhythm for at least 30 s within 30 min after the first dose, which was measured in all patients who administered blinded study drug for a confirmed atrioventricular-nodal-dependent event. Safety outcomes were assessed in all patients who self-administered blinded study drug for an episode of perceived paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. This trial is registered at, NCT03464019, and is complete.

FINDINGS: Between Oct 13, 2020, and July 20, 2022, among 692 patients randomly assigned, 184 (99 from the etripamil group and 85 from the placebo group) self-administered study drug for atrioventricular-nodal-dependent paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, with diagnosis and timing confirmed. Kaplan-Meier estimates of conversion rates by 30 min were 64% (63/99) with etripamil and 31% (26/85) with placebo (hazard ratio 2·62; 95% CI 1·66-4·15; p

INTERPRETATION: Using a symptom-prompted, self-administered, initial and optional-repeat-dosing regimen, intranasal etripamil was well tolerated, safe, and superior to placebo for the rapid conversion of atrioventricular-nodal-dependent paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia to sinus rhythm. This approach could empower patients to treat paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia themselves outside of a health-care setting, and has the potential to reduce the need for additional medical interventions, such as intravenous medications given in an acute-care setting.

FUNDING: Milestone Pharmaceuticals.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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