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This article is the author's final published version in International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 13, 2023, Article number 10852.

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Copyright © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// 4.0/).


The impact and safety of phytoestrogens, plant-derived isoflavones with estrogenic activity predominantly present in soy, on female reproductive health and IVF outcomes continues to be hotly debated. In this prospective cohort study, 60 women attending IVI-RMA New Jersey undergoing IVF with single frozen embryo transfer (SET/FET) of good-quality euploid blastocyst after PGT-A analysis were recruited. Concentrations of two phytoestrogens (daidzein and genistein) in follicular fluid (FF) and urine (U) were measured by UPLC-MSMS, both collected on vaginal oocyte retrieval day. These measurements correlated with IVF clinical outcomes. In models adjusted for age, BMI, race/ethnicity, and smoking status, higher FF phytoestrogen concentrations were significantly associated with higher serum estradiol, enhanced probability of implantation, clinical pregnancy, and live birth. Moreover, higher urine phytoestrogen concentrations were significantly associated with improved oocyte maturation and fertilization potential and increased probability of clinical pregnancy and live birth. Finally, higher FF and urine phytoestrogen concentrations were associated with a higher probability of live birth from a given IVF cycle. Our results suggest that dietary phytoestrogens improved reproductive outcomes of women undergoing IVF treatment. However, additional prospective studies are needed to optimize the use of phytoestrogens to further enhance reproductive outcomes and/or protect against reproductive insults.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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