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This article is the author's final published version in Cardiovascular Diabetology, Volume 22, Issue 1, June 2023, Article number 136.

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BACKGROUND: Lower-extremity endovascular revascularization (LER) is often required for diabetic patients with chronic limb threatening ischemia (CLTI). During the post-revascularization period patients may unpredictably experience major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and major adverse limb events (MALE). Several families of cytokines are involved in the inflammatory process that underlies the progression of atherosclerosis. According to current evidence, we have identified a panel of possible biomarkers related with the risk of developing MACE and MALE after LER. The aim was to study the relationship between a panel of biomarkers - Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and 6 (IL-6), C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), High-Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB-1), Osteoprotegerin (OPG), Sortilin and Omentin-1- at baseline, with cardiovascular outcomes (MACE and MALE) after LER in diabetic patients with CLTI.

METHODS: In this prospective non-randomized study, 264 diabetic patients with CLTI undergoing endovascular revascularization were enrolled. Serum levels of each biomarker were collected before revascularization and outcomes' incidence was evaluated after 1, 3, 6 and 12 months.

RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 42 cases of MACE and 81 cases of MALE occurred. There was a linear association for each biomarker at baseline and incident MACE and MALE, except Omentin-1 levels that were inversely related to the presence of MACE or MALE. After adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, the association between each biomarker baseline level and outcomes remained significant in multivariable analysis. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) models were constructed using traditional clinical and laboratory risk factors and the inclusion of biomarkers significantly improved the prediction of incident events.

CONCLUSIONS: Elevated IL-1, IL-6, CRP, TNF-α, HMGB-1, OPG and Sortilin levels and low Omentin-1 levels at baseline correlate with worse vascular outcomes in diabetic patients with CLTI undergoing LER. Assessment of the inflammatory state with this panel of biomarkers may support physicians to identify a subset of patients more susceptible to the procedure failure and to develop cardiovascular adverse events after LER.

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