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This article has been peer reviewed. It is the author’s final published version in Clinical and Translational Science

Volume 10, Issue 6, November 2017, Pages 455-469.

The published version is available at DOI: 10.1111/cts.12487. Copyright © Dunbar et al.


A single dose of the apolipoprotein (apo)A-I mimetic peptide D-4F rendered high-density lipoprotein (HDL) less inflammatory, motivating the first multiple-dose study. We aimed to assess safety/tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of daily, orally administered D-4F. High-risk coronary heart disease (CHD) subjects added double-blinded placebo or D-4F to statin for 13 days, randomly assigned 1:3 to ascending cohorts of 100, 300, then 500 mg (n = 62; 46 men/16 women). D-4F was safe and well-tolerated. Mean ± SD plasma D-4F area under the curve (AUC, 0-8h) was 6.9 ± 5.7 ng/mL*h (100 mg), 22.7 ± 19.6 ng/mL*h (300 mg), and 104.0 ± 60.9 ng/mL*h (500 mg) among men, higher among women. Whereas placebo dropped HDL inflammatory index (HII) 28% 8 h postdose (range, 1.25-0.86), 300-500 mg D-4F effectively halved HII: 1.35-0.57 and 1.22-0.63, respectively (P < 0.03 vs. placebo). Oral D-4F peptide dose predicted HII suppression, whereas plasma D-4F exposure was dissociated, suggesting plasma penetration is unnecessary. In conclusion, oral D-4F dosing rendered HDL less inflammatory, affirming oral D-4F as a potential therapy to improve HDL function.

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