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This article has been peer reviewed. It is the author’s final published version in Clinical Medicine Insights: Pathology, Volume 10, March 2017, Pages 1-8.

The published version is available at . Copyright © Banerjee et al.


CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells have been shown to be susceptible to HIV-1 infection, possibly due to a low-level expression of CXCR4, a coreceptor for HIV-1 entry. Given these observations, we have explored the impact of forskolin on cell surface expression of CXCR4 in a cell line model (TF-1). The elevation of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) by forskolin through adenylyl cyclase (AC) resulted in transcriptional upregulation of CXCR4 with a concomitant increase in replication of the CXCR4-utilizing HIV-1 strain IIIB. Transient expression analyses also demonstrated an increase in CXCR4-, CCR5-, and CXCR4-/CCR5-utilizing HIV-1 (LAI, YU2, and 89.6, respectively) promoter activity. Studies also implicated the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway and the downstream transcription factor CREB-1 in interfacing with cAMP response elements located in the CXCR4 and viral promoter. These observations suggest that the cAMP signaling pathway may serve as a regulator of CXCR4 levels and concomitantly of HIV-1 replication in bone marrow (BM) progenitor cells. © 2017, © The Author(s) 2017.

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