Document Type


Publication Date



This article is the author's final published version in World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, Issue 39, October 2021, Pages 6527 - 6550.

The published version is available at

Copyright © 2021 The Author(s).

Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:


Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the third leading cause of cancerrelated deaths in the United States. Although chemotherapeutic regimens such as gemcitabine+ nab-paclitaxel and FOLFIRINOX (FOLinic acid, 5-Fluroruracil, IRINotecan, and Oxaliplatin) significantly improve patient survival, the prevalence of therapy resistance remains a major roadblock in the success of these agents. This review discusses the molecular mechanisms that play a crucial role in PDAC therapy resistance and how a better understanding of these mechanisms has shaped clinical trials for pancreatic cancer chemotherapy. Specifically, we have discussed the metabolic alterations and DNA repair mechanisms observed in PDAC and current approaches in targeting these mechanisms. Our discussion also includes the lessons learned following the failure of immunotherapy in PDAC and current approaches underway to improve tumor's immunological response.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License