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Articles in this series are working papers in submission or revision for eventual publication in print and/or broad circulation venues. Comments and questions directed to the author(s) are most appreciated and will be acknowledged accordingly.

The series aspire to both readability and rigor. We aim to reach and connect with as many readers who can benefit from the material as possible, while also providing everything we have to anyone who wishes to dig deeper or question our conclusions. Towards this end, we try to limit the text itself to making our points while providing extensive supplemental evidence, citations and anything else not critical to the primary argument to annotations and appendices. See

Copyrights remain with the authors and/or their publishers. Reproduction, posting to web pages, electronic bulletin boards or other electronic archives is prohibited without express consent of the copyright holders.

This is tentatively the first chapter in a textbook being written, A Systems Approach to Applied Research Methods, based on the courses in Applied Research Methods taught in the Jefferson Complex systems/strategic leadership Phd/DMgmt program and designed for Executive PhD, DBA and MBA courses.