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This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Wermuth, P. J., & Jimenez, S. A. (2014). Induction of a type I interferon signature in normal human monocytes by gadolinium-based contrast agents: Comparison of linear and macrocyclic agents. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 175(1), 113-125, which has been published in final form at DOI: 10.1111/cei.12211. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.


The gadolinium-based contrast agent (GdBCA) Omniscan activates human macrophages through Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 and TLR-7 signalling. To explore the mechanisms responsible we compared the ability of linear and macrocyclic GdBCA to induce a type I interferon signature and a proinflammatory/profibrotic phenotype in normal human monocytes in vitro. Expression of genes associated with type I interferon signalling and inflammation and production of their corresponding proteins were determined. Both linear and macrocyclic GdBCA stimulated expression of multiple type I interferon-regulated genes and the expression of numerous chemokines, cytokines and growth factors in normal human peripheral blood monocytes. There was no correlation between the magnitude of the measured response and the Gd chelate used. To explore the mechanisms responsible for GdBCA induction of fibrosis in nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in vitro, normal human dermal fibroblasts were incubated with GdBCA-treated monocyte culture supernatants and the effects on profibrotic gene expression were examined. Supernatants from monocytes exposed to all GdBCA stimulated types I and III collagen, fibronectin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression in normal dermal fibroblasts. The results indicate that the monocyte activation induced by GdBCA may be the initial step in the development of GdBCA associated fibrosis in NSF.

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