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This is the final published version of the article from the journal Infection and Drug Resistance, 2021 Dec 16;14:5429-5448.

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Publication made possible in part by support from the Jefferson Open Access Fund


In recent years, there has been an upsurge in cases of drug-resistant TB, and strains of TB resistant to all forms of treatment have begun to emerge; the highest level of resistance is classified as extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). There is an urgent need to prevent poor outcomes (death/default/failed treatment) of XDR-TB, and knowing the risk factors can inform such efforts. The objective of this scoping review was to therefore identify risk factors for poor outcomes among XDR-TB patients. We searched three scientific databases, PubMed, Scopus, and ProQuest, and identified 25 articles that examined relevant risk factors. Across the included studies, the proportion of patients with poor outcomes ranged from 8.6 to 88.7%. We found that the most commonly reported risk factor for patients with XDR-TB developing poor outcomes was having a history of TB. Other risk factors were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a history of incarceration, low body mass, being a smoker, alcohol use, unemployment, being male, and being middle-aged. Knowledge and understanding of the risk factors associated with poor outcomes of XDR-TB can help policy makers and organizations in the process of designing and implementing effective programs.

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