Background: Female mosquitoes serve as vectors for a host of illnesses, including malaria, spread by the Plasmodium parasite. Despite monumental strides to reduce this disease burden through tools such as bed nets, the rate of these gains is slowing. Ongoing disruptions related to the COVID-19 pandemic may also negatively impact gains. The following scoping review was conducted to examine novel means of reversing this trend by exploring the efficacy of insecticide-treated window screens or eaves to reduce Anopheles mosquito bites, mosquito house entry, and density.
Methods: Two reviewers independently searched PubMed, Scopus, and ProQuest databases on 10 July, 2020 for peer-reviewed studies using insecticide-treated screens or eaves in malaria-endemic countries. These articles were published in English between the years 2000-2020. Upon collection, the reports were stratified into categories of biting incidence and protective efficacy, mosquito entry and density, and mosquito mortality.
Results: Thirteen out of 2180 articles were included in the final review. Eaves treated with beta-cyfluthrin, transfluthrin or bendiocarb insecticides were found to produce vast drops in blood-feeding, biting or mosquito prevalence. Transfluthrin-treated eaves were reported to have greater efficacy at reducing mosquito biting: Rates dropped by 100% both indoors and outdoors under eave ribbon treatments of 0.2% transfluthrin (95% CI 0.00-0.00; p < 0.001). Additionally, co-treating window screens and eaves with polyacrylate-binding agents and with pirimiphos-methyl has been shown to retain insecticidal potency after several washes, with a mosquito mortality rate of 94% after 20 washes (95% CI 0.74-0.98; p < 0.001).
Conclusions: The results from this scoping review suggest that there is value in implementing treated eave tubes or window screens. More data are needed to study the longevity of screens and household attitudes toward these interventions.
Anaele, Beverly; Varshney, Karan; Ugwu, Francis S O; and Frasso, Rosemary, "The efficacy of insecticide-treated window screens and eaves against Anopheles mosquitoes: a scoping review" (2021). College of Population Health Faculty Papers. Paper 130.
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