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This article is the authors’ final published version in Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology, Volume 12, Supplement 2, July 2021, Pages 324-338.

The published version is available at Copyright © Gibbs et al.


“Old age, itself, is not a disease” (Suborne 2007). The rising rate of the global aging population is predicted to create a health care crisis within the next three decades. Vulnerable older adults suffer from multiple chronic conditions (MCCs) in addition to cognitive and physical decline during the process of aging resulting in an inability to optimally achieve self-management. In terms of resource utilization, complex inpatient, and outpatient care results in higher physician visits, polypharmacy, and higher prescription costs. Health literacy has become known as an important social determinant of health affecting the older population. Both reductions in health literacy and self-management are associated with poorer health outcomes. The patient activation measure (PAM) has been coined “a vital sign” to ascertain a patient activation level throughout the continuum of care with the introduction of an intervention’s progress. In this review, we conceptualize a systematic approach of the development of a “tailored” integrated community and care team to develop a partnership in assisting senior adults with MCCs. Through this intervention the value-based chronic care model (CCM) and PAM allows for an adaptable integration between the activated patient, their caregivers, and the community. The Model for Improvement (MFI) serves as a well-recognized technique for developing and executing quality improvement strategies in this “tailored” engaged and activated individual and community care team approach in achieving health outcomes and quality of life among the vulnerable older adult population worldwide.

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