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This article is the author’s final published version in PharmacoEconomics - Open, Volume 4, Issue 1, June 2019, Pages 119-131.

The published version is available at Copyright © Pilon et al.


OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess healthcare resource utilization (HRU) and costs among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with and without treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and those without MDD in US Integrated Delivery Networks (IDNs).

METHODS: This was a retrospective matched-cohort study. The Optum© Integrated Claims Electronic Health Record de-identified database was used to identify adult patients with TRD (January 2011-June 2017) across US IDNs. TRD patients were propensity score matched 1:1 with non-TRD MDD and non-MDD patients on demographics. Rates of HRU and costs were compared up to 2 years following the first antidepressant pharmacy claim (or randomly imputed date for non-MDD patients) using negative binomial and ordinary least squares regressions, respectively, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from nonparametric bootstraps (costs only) adjusted for baseline comorbidity index and costs.

RESULTS: All 1582 TRD patients were matched to non-TRD MDD and non-MDD patients and evaluated. TRD patients were on average 46 years old, and 67% were female. Mean duration of observation was 20.1, 19.6, and 17.9 months in the TRD, non-TRD MDD, and non-MDD cohorts, respectively. Patients with TRD had significantly higher rates of HRU than did non-TRD MDD patients (inpatient visits 0.35 vs. 0.16 per patient per year [PPPY]; adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] 2.04 [95% CI 1.74-2.39]) and non-MDD patients (0.35 vs. 0.09 PPPY, adjusted IRR 3.05 [95% CI 2.54-3.66]). TRD patients incurred significantly higher costs PPPY than did non-TRD MDD patients ($US25,807 vs. 13,701, adjusted cost difference $US9479 [95% CI 7071-11,621]) and non-MDD patients ($US25,807 vs. 8500, adjusted cost difference $US11,433 [95% CI 8668-13,876]).

CONCLUSIONS: HRU and costs associated with TRD are significant in US IDNs.

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