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This article is the author's final published version in Biomedicines, Volume 11, Issue 2, 2023, Article number 569.

The published version is available at Copyright © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Migraine, a primary headache disorder involving a dysfunctional trigeminal vascular system, remains a major debilitating neurological condition impacting many patients’ quality of life. Despite the success of multiple new migraine therapies, not all patients achieve significant clinical benefits. The success of CGRP pathway-targeted therapy highlights the importance of translating the mechanistic understanding toward effective therapy. Ongoing research has identified multiple potential mechanisms in migraine signaling and nociception. In this narrative review, we discuss several potential emerging therapeutic targets, including pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), adenosine, δ-opioid receptor (DOR), potassium channels, transient receptor potential ion channels (TRP), and acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC). A better understanding of these mechanisms facilitates the discovery of novel therapeutic targets and provides more treatment options for improved clinical care.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.