Document Type


Presentation Date



This article was published in The American Surgeon Volume 78, Issue 3, March 2012, Pages 282-283.

The published version is available at PMID: 22524763. Copyright © Ingenta


Although most widely recognized for the two types of gastric reconstructions that bear his name, Christian Albert Theodor Billroth was one of the most innovative surgeons of his time. His contributions included developing techniques for procedures on the larynx, breast, and esophagus. He pioneered sterility and antisepsis in operating rooms. He also improved surgical education by advocating for longer apprenticeships, which helped create a framework for today’s residency programs. However, what often goes unnoticed was Dr. Billroth’s love for music, a passion that fueled him throughout his life.