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This article is the author's final published version in Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology, Volume 15, July 2022, Pages 105 - 120.

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Copyright © 2022 Ahmed. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms (


Bile is a unique body fluid synthesized in our liver. Enterohepatic circulation preserves bile in our body through its efficient synthesis, transport, absorption, and reuptake. Bile is the main excretory route for bile salts, bilirubin, and potentially harmful exogenous lipophilic substances. The primary way of eliminating cholesterol is bile. Although bile has many organic and inorganic contents, bile acid is the most physiologically active component. Bile acids have a multitude of critical physiologic functions in our body. These include emulsification of dietary fat, absorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins, maintaining glucose, lipid, and energy homeostasis, sustenance of intestinal epithelial integrity and epithelial cell proliferation, reducing inflammation in the intestine, and prevention of enteric infection due to its antimicrobial properties. But bile acids can be harmful in certain altered conditions like cholecystectomy, terminal ileal disease or resection, cholestasis, duodenogastric bile reflux, duodenogastroesophageal bile reflux, and bile acid diarrhea. Bile acids can have malignant potentials as well. There are also important diagnostic and therapeutic roles of bile acid and bile acid modulation.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 License

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