OBJECTIVE: Dysregulated adipokine profiles contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiovascular complications. Endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction, a common pathological alteration in cardiovascular disorders, is exaggerated in diabetes. However, it is unclear whether and how dysregulated adipokines may contribute to diabetic EC dysfunction.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Serum C1q/TNF-Related Protein 5 (CTRP5) were determined in control/diabetes patients, and control/diabetic mice (high-fat diet, HFD). We observed for the first time that serum total CTRP5 was increased, high molecular weight (HMW) form was decreased, but the globular form (gCTRP5) was significantly increased in diabetic patients. These pathological alterations were reproduced in diabetic mice. To determine the pathological significance of increased gCTRP5 in diabetes, in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro experiments were performed. Diabetic atherosclerosis and EC dysfunction were significantly attenuated by the in vivo administration of CTRP5 neutralization antibody (CTRP5Ab). EC apoptosis was significantly increased in diabetic EC (isolated from HFD animal aorta) or high glucose high lipid (HGHL) cultured HUVECs. These pathological alterations were further potentiated by gCTRP5 and attenuated by CTRP5Ab. Pathway specific discovery-driven approach revealed that Nox1 expression was one of the signaling molecules commonly activated by HFD, HGHL, and gCTRP5. Treatment with CTRP5Ab reversed HFD-induced Nox1 upregulation. Finally, Nox1siRNA was used to determine the causative role of Nox1 in gCTRP5 induced EC apoptosis in diabetes. Results showed that gCTRP5 activated the mitochondrial apoptotic signal of EC in diabetes, which was blocked by the silencing Nox1 gene.
CONCLUSION: We demonstrated for the first time that gCTRP5 is a novel molecule contributing to diabetic vascular EC dysfunction through Nox1-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis, suggesting that interventions blocking gCTRP5 may protect diabetic EC function, ultimately attenuate diabetic cardiovascular complications.
Liu, Jing; Meng, Zhijun; Gan, Lu; Guo, Rui; Gao, Jia; Liu, Caihong; Zhu, Di; Liu, Demin; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Zhen; Xie, Dina; Jiao, Xiangying; Lau, Wayne Bond; Lopez, Bernard L.; Christopher, Theodore A.; Ma, Xin-Liang; Cao, Jimin; and Wang, Yajing, "C1q/TNF-related protein 5 contributes to diabetic vascular endothelium dysfunction through promoting Nox-1 signaling." (2020). Department of Emergency Medicine Faculty Papers. Paper 144.
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