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This article is the author’s final published version in International Journal of Heart Failure, Volume 5, Issue 3, July 2023, Pages 159-168.

The published version is available at Copyright © 2023. Korean Society of Heart Failure.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Readmissions in heart failure (HF), historically reported as 20%, contribute to significant patient morbidity and high financial cost to the healthcare system. The changing population landscape and risk factor dynamics mandate periodic epidemiologic reassessment of HF readmissions.

METHODS: National Readmission Database (NRD, 2019) was used to identify HF-related hospitalizations and evaluated for demographic, admission characteristics, and comorbidity differences between patients readmitted vs. those not readmitted at 30-days. Causes of readmission and predictors of all-cause, HF-specific, and non-HF-related readmissions were analyzed.

RESULTS: Of 48,971 HF patients, the readmitted cohort was younger (mean 67.4 vs. 68.9 years, p≤0.001), had higher proportion of males (56.3% vs. 53.7%), lowest income quartiles (33.3% vs. 28.9%), Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) ≥3 (61.7% vs. 52.8%), resource utilization including large bed-size hospitalizations, Medicaid enrollees, mean length of stay (6.2 vs. 5.4 days), and disposition to other facilities (23.9% vs. 20%) than non-readmitted. Readmission (30-day) rate was 21.2% (10,370) with cardiovascular causes in 50.3% (HF being the most common: 39%), and non-cardiac in 49.7%. Independent predictors for readmission were male sex, lower socioeconomic status, nonelective admissions, atrial fibrillation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, anemia, and CCI ≥3. HF-specific readmissions were significantly associated with prior coronary artery disease and Medicaid enrollment.

CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis revealed cardiac and noncardiac causes of readmission were equally common for 30-day readmissions in HF patients with HF itself being the most common etiology highlighting the importance of addressing the comorbidities, both cardiac and non-cardiac, to mitigate the risk of readmission.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License

ijhf-5-159-s001.xls (40 kB)
Supplementary Table 1 - ICD-10 codes for baseline characteristics and comorbidities

ijhf-5-159-s002.xls (50 kB)
Supplementary Table 2 - ICD-10 codes for admission diagnosis from NRD (2019)



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