The Impact of COVID-19 on Hospitalization Outcomes of Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction in the USA

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This article is the author's final published version in American Heart Journal Plus: Cardiology Research and Practice, Volume 32, August 2023, Article number 100305.

The published version is available at Published by Elsevier Inc.


Background/study objective: The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic affected health care delivery, as it led to variable outcomes in different disease states including cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we evaluated the impact of coexisting COVID-19 on Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI). Design/setting: We analyzed discharge records of AMI patients from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) in the year 2020.

Main outcome measures: Using propensity score matching, we assessed the impact of COVID-19 infection on the in-hospital outcomes of patients presenting with AMI.

Results: There were 1154 patients with concomitant COVID-19 infection and AMI who were matched with 109,990 patients with AMI and without COVID-19. We found that patients with COVID-19 who had AMI were less likely to have dyslipidemia (64.6 % vs. 70.4 %, p < 0.001), peripheral vascular disease (2.4 % vs. 3.8 % p = 0.0017), smoking history (23.5 % vs. 28.2 % p < 0.0001) and hypertension (37.1 % vs. 40.1 % p = 0.004). COVID-19 was associated with higher hospital mortality rates (Adjusted odds ratio aOR: 2.72, CI: 2.23–3.30, p < 0.001), cardiac arrest (aOR: 1.65, 95 % CI: 1.26–2.15, p < 0.001), cardiogenic shock (aOR:1.36,95 % CI: 1.10–1.68, p = 0.004) and respiratory failure (aOR:1.81, 95 % CI: 1.55–2.11 p < 0.001) compared to AMI patients without COVID-19. There was also a significant association between coexisting COVID-19 and longer duration of hospital stay (Adjusted mean differences:1.40, 95 % CI: 1.31–1.59 p < 0.0001) in AMI patients.

Conclusion: COVID-19 infection is associated with worse in-hospital mortality and cardiorespiratory complications in patients with AMI.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.



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