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This article has been peer reviewed. It is the author’s final published version in Frontiers in Microbiology Volume 9, Issue JUN, June 2018, Article number 1222.

The published version is available at Copyright © de Jong et al.


Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is an autosomal recessive skin disorder with a phenotype conditional on human beta-papillomavirus (beta-HPV) infection. Such infections are common and asymptomatic in the general population, but in individuals with EV, they lead to the development of plane wart-like and red or brownish papules or pityriasis versicolor-like skin lesions, from childhood onwards. Most patients develop non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), mostly on areas of UV-exposed skin, from the twenties or thirties onwards. At least half of the cases of typical EV are caused by biallelic loss-of-function mutations of TMC6/EVER1 or TMC8/EVER2. The cellular and molecular basis of disease in TMC/EVER-deficient patients is unknown, but a defect of keratinocyte-intrinsic immunity to beta-HPV is suspected. Indeed, these patients are not susceptible to other infectious diseases and have apparently normal leukocyte development. In contrast, patients with an atypical form of EV due to inborn errors of T-cell immunity invariably develop clinical symptoms of EV in the context of other infectious diseases. The features of the typical and atypical forms of EV thus suggest that the control of beta-HPV infections requires both EVER1/EVER2-dependent keratinocyte-intrinsic immunity and T cell-dependent adaptive immunity. © 2018 de Jong, Imahorn, Itin, Uitto, Orth, Jouanguy, Casanova and Burger.

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