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This article is the authors’ final published version in Journal of the American Heart Association, Volume 10, Issue 15, August 2021, Article number e021061.

The published version is available at Copyright © Osman et al.


BACKGROUND: There is a lack of contemporary data on cardiogenic shock (CS) in-hospital mortality trends.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with CS admitted January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2018, were identified from the US National Inpatient Sample. We reported the crude and adjusted trends of in-hospital mortality among the overall population and selected subgroups. Among a total of 563 949 644 hospitalizations during the period from January 1, 2004, to December 30, 2018, 1 254 358 (0.2%) were attributed to CS. There has been a steady increase in hospitalizations attributed to CS from 122 per 100 000 hospitalizations in 2004 to 408 per 100 000 hospitalizations in 2018 (Ptrendtrendtrendtrend

CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalizations attributed to CS have tripled in the period from January 2004 to December 2018. However, there has been a slow decline in CS in-hospital mortality during the studied period. Further studies are necessary to determine if the recent adoption of treatment algorithms in treating patients with CS will further impact in-hospital mortality.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License



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