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This article is the author's final published version in Journal of the American Heart Association, Volume 10, Issue 10, May 2021, Article number e019712.

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Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell

This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐Non Commercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.


Background NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) is a prognostic biomarker in heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction. However, it is unclear whether there is a sex difference in NT-proBNP response and whether the therapeutic goal of NT-proBNP ≤1000 pg/mL has equivalent prognostic value in men and women with HF with reduced ejection fraction. Methods and Results In a secondary analysis of the GUIDE-IT (Guiding Evidence Based Therapy Using Biomarker Intensified Treatment) trial we analyzed trends in NT-proBNP and goal attainment by sex. Differences in clinical characteristics, HF treatment, and time to all-cause death or HF hospitalization were compared. Landmark analysis at 3 months determined the prognostic value of early NT-proBNP goal achievement in men and women. Of the 286 (32%) women and 608 (68%) men in the GUIDE-IT trial, women were more likely to have a nonischemic cause and shorter duration of HF. Guideline-directed medical therapy was less intense over time in women. The absolute NT-proBNP values were consistently lower in women; however, the change in NT-proBNP and clinical outcomes were similar. After adjustment, women achieving the NT-proBNP goal had an 82% reduction in death or HF hospitalization compared with a 59% reduction in men. Conclusions Men and women with HF with reduced ejection fraction had a similar NT-proBNP response despite less intensive HF treatment among women. However, compared with men, the early NT-proBNP goal of ≤1000 pg/mL had greater prognostic value in women. Future efforts should be aimed at intensifying guideline-directed medical therapy in women, which may result in greater NT-proBNP reductions and improved outcomes in women with HF with reduced ejection fraction. Registration URL:; Unique identifier: NCT01685840.

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